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Rowing the Colorado River Through the Grand Canyon




When John Wesley Powell made the first successful expedition through the Grand Canyon by boat, he started from Green River, Wyoming. Three boats and ten men headed for Big Canyon without maps or knowledge of white water navigation. It took over three months with time out for exploration and recovery. The journey covered over 1,000 miles.

One hundred and fourteen years later, three men in one wooden row boat launched from Lee’s Ferry intending to set a speed record through the entire Grand Canyon. There was an excess of rainfall and snowmelt in 1983. The spillways on Glen Canyon Dam had to be opened to their maximum flow.

Kenton Grua, Rudi Petschek, and Wally Rist knew the river as well as any boatmen could. Their dory, named the Emerald Mile, was highly maneuverable. Still they had no idea how they would control their boat on a river flowing at 70,000 cfs or more. Since they were not carrying proof of a permit for this trip, they started in the middle of the night. They had 276.5 miles to cover before reaching Lake Mead.

It was the gamble of a lifetime and one which these three adrenaline-charged raft guides felt compelled to take. Each man was clear on their role, leaning into the gunnels whenever they were high-sided, keeping the bow weighted if there was danger of flipping, and rescuing the rower if his arms started to give out.

It took exactly thirty-six hours, thirty-eight minutes, and twenty-nine seconds. The speed record was beyond their highest expectations. The fact that they were all alive was an additional accomplishment.

If you desire a brilliant description of this and other trips through the Grand Canyon, read The Emerald Mile by Kevin Fedarko.

Kevin Fedarko has continued his quest to describe the Grand Canyon by attempting a 650-mile ”sectional” thru-hike across the rugged and unmarked trails of the south rim. Go to: to discover the whole story. The September 2016 issue of National Geographic paints a thorough picture of what Kevin Fedarko and Pete McBride attempted.







Stories from ancient times were preserved in stone. Depending on when and where the authors lived, they might be carved using different alphabets or pictures. This runic alphabet was used in Sweden in the 11th Century. During this portion of the Middle Ages, Vikings were traveling to many other countries searching for precious minerals and conquering other people.
Here is one story which has been reproduced. “They fared like men far after gold and in the east gave the eagle food They die soutward in Serkland” The explanation is they killed enemies while traveling far. Serkland was “the Saracens land”.
Many rune stones such as this were found in Sweden. This one is on the lawn of Gripsholm Castle, one of eleven royal palaces in Sweden.

To study the entire futhark alphabet and the modern translation go to:


Vikings: The Good, Bad, and Dirty

The Vikings were extraordinary ship builders. Before 800 AD, they invented ships which could sail up rivers and travel across the Atlantic Ocean. Since their boats were designed to flex with the movement of waves, a massive new era of trade with far-flung people developed.

They were the first Europeans to reach North America. In 1,000 AD Leif Ericsson, also known as Lucky Leif, began a settlement in Newfoundland.

They were also superior at mass producing tools, clothes, and equipment. They communicated in runes and carved messages in stones and wood. They began the very first parliament in Pingvellir, Iceland.

BUT, they were also vicious warriors. They used surprise attacks in Russia, France, Turkey, the British Isles, Greenland, and Iceland to conquer new territory. They used swords, axes, spears, and bows to kill and capture their enemies. They took slaves and were particularly cruel to women. They stole everything of value.

Historically, bathing was a problem in cold places or while traveling long distances. Instead, a group of Viking men might share one bowl of water, rinsing their faces, necks, and beards, clearing their nasal passages and spitting, then passing the bowl to the next warrior.

The photos are from the earliest town in Sweden, which is now a World Heritage Site. During the summer months, you can take a guided tour of Birka, climb their ancient fields, visit a museum of archeological treasures, and wander through a reconstructed village. The island of Birka is located on Lake Malaren.

For more information go to:

The Mystery Below Dream Lake


You cannot help focusing on Flattop Mountain while at Dream Lake. It juts 3,000 feet above you and, for the most intrepid hikers, lures you 4.4 miles to the Continental Divide.

The most impressive aspect of Dream Lake, however, is what lies below. The Ancestral Rocky Mountains were formed 1.7 billion years ago. They are made up of the oldest rocks in North America, which are Precambrian metamorphic rocks. What you know as the Rocky Mountains of Colorado are actually the newer rocks, which were pushed up about 80 – 55 million years ago. Since then glaciers, wind and water have carved the spectacular chain of skyscrapers we know as The Rocky Mountains.

As these modern mountains were forced upwards, they left some rock slabs tilted at steep angles. One popular place to see results of tectonic forces is the Flatirons in Boulder, Colorado.

However, don’t overlook the rare beauty of the Ancestral Rocky Mountains revealed in Big Thompson Canyon. In the narrowest section of this twisted river canyon are black walls of banded gneiss and shiny schist deposited 1.8 billion years ago. Highway 34, from Estes Park, CO to Loveland, CO will open on Memorial Day weekend, 2017. The road will still be under construction for another year. They are reshaping the canyon so the Big Thompson River cannot do as much damage as it did in the flood of 2013.

Take this historic drive to Rocky Mountain National Park and head toward the bus stop to Bear Lake. From Bear Lake, maps and signs will lead you to Dream Lake and beyond.

For further information about the Geology of the Rocky Mountains go to: of the Rocky Mountains

If you are fortunate upon arriving at exit 254 on Colorado’s I-70, you will be rewarded with a perfect view of The American Bison herd. I say “The” because these animals are descendants of seven of the remaining wild animals discovered in Yellowstone National Park in 1914. Exceptional survivors such as this herd escaped the twenty-year massacre of bison, which took place after the Transcontinental Railroad was completed and the Civil War ended.

Try to excuse the sign, which states “Buffalo Herd Overlook.” The City and County of Denver Parks still use the popular name for bison. If you do not spy the herd immediately, you can drive to the Chief Hosa exit and continue north on a dirt road which is part of the Lariat Loop National Scenic Byway. The bison are also fed here and can actually cross under I-70 to the Overlook.

Prior to being hunted to the brink of extinction, American bison roamed over 40% of our nation. Indigenous people and early explorers thrived on bison meat and were protected by their hides. Since there were millions of bison, it was not unusual for people to come upon a herd of 1,000. They were so numerous that members of the Lewis and Clark expedition stopped mentioning them in their journals.

Why do you think the United States Army, and early pioneers ignored the value of these beasts and did nothing to preserve the species? With no foresight, they concluded that wiping out the bison would make it easier to wipe out the Indians. Were news and historical agencies aware that 50 million bison were being exterminated?

These facts help with our current efforts to right the wrongs.

  • A bison can outrun a Quarter horse over a ¼ mile tract
  • A bison can jump a six- foot fence from a standing position
  • Their curved horns can grow to be two-feet long.
  • Today there are about 4,000 American bison in Yellowstone National Park. They are more dangerous to humans than bears.
  • See The Long Trail of Yellowstone Bison, Defenders of Wildlife.

Harriet Tubman: Heroine of the Underground Railroad



She was born in 1822 on a slave plantation in Bucktown, Maryland. After suffering a cracked skull as a punishment, she knew she must seek liberty or death. In 1849, she walked at night through Delaware, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania,and New York, reaching safety at last in St. Catherine, Canada.

All of the secret places which hid escaped slaves were linked by the Underground Railroad. Unfortunately, no trains helped the runaways and their hiding places were anywhere, above or below ground.

Now, Harriet Ross Tubman’s home, in Auburn, New York, is a National Historic Park. To learn more about it go to:

It was not enough for her to start a new life in Canada. She made thirteen more trips to Maryland to lead slaves to freedom. She was helped by a famous man, William H. Seward, of Auburn, NY. He became Abraham Lincoln’s Secretary of State. Not only did his family and staff hide runaways, but he also sold Harriet Tubman her first home which included 7 acres of land. The brick home in the picture, was built after the original wooden house burned down. Harriet always welcomed those who needed a place to live, sometimes keeping 20 or more people in the four-bedroom space.

Her message to all of us both simple and profound, “Children, if you are tired, Keep Going; if you are scared, Keep Going; if you are hungry, Keep Going; if you want to taste freedom, Keep Going.”

What challenges have you faced, that Harriet Tubman’s motto can help to solve?20160831_120218?




Virginia Dale Stage Station


Virginia Dale Stage, built in 1862

The Overland Trail Mail route was established in 1862 to assist passengers in avoiding Indian uprisings that were occurring on the Oregon Trail further north. It followed the Cherokee Trail until it split between LaPorte and Virginia Dale. Virginia Dale was the westerly route, eventually rejoining the Oregon Trail at Ft. Bridger, Wyoming. About 20,000 pioneers traveled the Overland Trail each year from 1862 – 1868. Indian attacks became more common as more emigrants arrived.

Virginia Dale was the most famous of the Overland Trail stage stations. The notorious stationmaster, Jack Slade, named it after his wife Virginia. Slade was reported to ride wild mustangs and shoot up the countryside when he was not drunk. He may have been responsible for a stage hold-up one mile from Virginia Dale during which $60,000.00 disappeared.

When the station was abandoned as a stage stop, settlers were attracted to the area by the streams and meadows, which were exceptional for grazing cattle. Although the original building has been preserved, the school and church are not standing.

Once the Central Pacific Railroad and Union Pacific Railroad were joined at Promontory Point, Utah in 1869, much of the traffic was diverted from Virginia Dale.

Mark Twain added to the lore surrounding Virginia Dale in his novel, Roughing It.

You can visit this historic site by traveling 45 miles north of Ft. Collins, Colorado on Highway 287.


Outhouse from Virginia Dale Station